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被动语态的用法归纳总结附视频

被动语态的用法

(1)被动语态定义:被动语态是动词的一种特殊形式,用来说明主语与谓语动词之间的关系。如果主语是   动作的执行者(即某人做某事),便叫主动语态;如果主语是动作的承受者(即某事被做),便叫被动语态。主动与被动的区别不是词序的区别,而是主语与谓语意义上的区别。在英语中只有及物动词和一些相当于及物动词的词组才有被动语态的形式。

(2)英语中被动语态由“助动词be +动词的过去分词”构成。助动词be有时态、人称和数的变化。被动语态后的by短语有时可省去。具体结构见下表:

[注] p.p.表示过去分词。

(1) 被动语态的用法:

① 不知道谁是动作的执行者(即不知道谁做)时用被动语态,省略by短语。如:A man was killed in the accident.(一个人死于事故)/ This window was broken yesterday.(这扇窗子是昨天被打破的)

②不说或者众所周知是谁做时,用被动语态,省略by短语。如:Rice is also grown in this place.(这个地方也种水稻)/ A railroad will be built here in three years.(三年之后这里将要修建一条铁路)

③强调动作的承受者,句尾加by短语。如:It was written by Lu Xun.(它(书)是鲁迅写的)/ A pet dog is never killed by its owner.(宠物狗是不会被主人宰杀的)

(2) 主动语态如何改写为被动语态:

       

(3) 注意点:

①“动词+间接宾语+直接宾语”改为被动时,可以用间接宾语做被动句的主语。如:

His teacher gave him a dictionary.→He was given a dictionary by his teacher.(老师给他一本字典→他得到老师一本字典)

也可以用直接宾语做被动句的主语,但是需用to或者for引出原句的间接宾语。如:His teacher gave him a dictionary.→A dictionary was given to him by his teacher.(老师给他一本字典→一本字典由老师送给了他)/His father made him a kite.→A kite was made for him by his father.(他的父亲给他做了一个风筝→一个风筝由他的父亲做给了他)

②“动词+宾语+动词原形”改为被动时,动词原形前要加to.如:The boss made the poor man work 12 hours a day.→The poor man was made to work 12 hours a day.(老板让这个可怜的人一天工作12小时→这个可怜人被迫一天工作12小时)

③“动词+…+介词”改为被动时,介词一般在原位不动。如:The girl takes good care of her little brother.→The girl’s little brother is taken good care of by her.(女孩照顾小弟弟→女孩的小弟弟由她照顾着)

④“be+过去分词”未必表示被动语态,而可能是系表结构。如:

He is pleased / worried / tired /…….(系表)(他高兴/焦虑/疲劳……)

He was hit / knocked down / told / shot / …….(被动)(他被击中/撞倒/关照/射中……)

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